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8: SHADOW (Line
Since the shadow is not really a part of the car, I chose to hatch in a
completely different direction than the hatching/shading on the car in order to
separate the shadow. The darkest part of the shadow is the area directly below
the car, then, as it projects away from the car, the shadow should get lighter
and more transparent (vignette).
7: SHADING (line
When shading, try to shade in the same direction as the initial hatch lines.
Don’t forget to vignette, or shade in a direction which starts dark and fades
lighter as the shade moves away from the focal area (J).
Again, the focal point should have the most contrast, line weight, and detail.
6: HATCHING (Line
Hatching is a quick way to indicate lighting. The hatch line should have
uniform line weight. Sometimes it is best to hatch in the opposite direction
when indicating a surface corner (i).
5: FOCAL POINT
(Line Weight: medium and heavy)
It’s very important to have a focal point – even on line drawings. In this
case, the focal point is the corner of the car closest to the observer, or
closest headlight. This area will begin with thick line weight that tapers as it
flows away from the focal area. This also includes thicker line weight around
the headlights (h). This is also a good time to indicate tire tread and black
out grilles, spokes, and vents.
4: GLASS DETAILS
(Line Weight: heavy)
A rather heavy line weight is used around the glass area to indicate seals,
material separation as well as emphasis on the DLO (Day-Light-Opening). (g)
SEPARATION (Line Weight: medium)
The third step is to separate all major surface changes, such as the hood,
cowl, grilles, vents, and separation lines.
NOTE: Most surface breaks on vehicles are rounded or have some sort radius. To
visually emphasize this; instead of using a single line (which indicate a sharp,
acute surface break), two parallel lines should be used to indicate a radius on
the edge (f).
2: PERIMITER LINE
WEIGHT (Line Weight: heavy)
The perimeter line weight will probably be the thickest to help pull the
image off the page and emphasize the overall silhouette– it should be darkest
towards the undercarriage.
1: INITIAL SKETCH
AND OVERLAY (Line Weight: light)
After choosing a final design, I check the perspective by reversing the page
and looking through it using a lamp.
I use axle lines in order to make sure that my wheels are within perspective
(a). The minor axis should be perpendicular to the major (or axle line) axis
In order to check surfaces, I draw contour lines (c and d) along the X and Y
axis while going over every surface change.
Just like the wheels, notice the axis lines along the headlights in order to
make sure that the ellipses for the headlights are correct (e).
Hector graduated from Art Center College of Design (Pasadena, CA) in
August 2005 with a Bachelors of Science in Transportation Design. He is
currently working as a contract/freelance designer for various industries. Most
recently his projects have included an automotive television commercial as a
consultant and automotive designer, race car video game concept designer,
magazine features, and vehicle production work. As a designer he likes to design
anything from bicycles, to cars, boats, aircraft or spacecraft, and everything
else in between! You can see more samples of Hectors work at his online
portfolio at, www.realubitdesign.com
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