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The very final stage of the drawing is to pick out a few subtle highlights, again using the gouache. These highlights actually represent areas that the vehicle is directly reflecting the sunlight back to you. This stage tends to have more impact if you keep it very subtle and try to maintain a little order to where it is applied. For instance, you can see that the highlights in the grill all fall in one line.
A good piece of advice once you have read this tutorial is too look at photos of vehicles, or even go outside and walk around real a real car. Try to recognise the elements of lighting you have learned in this tutorial. The way reflections and colour work on different surfaces, depending on the angle you view them, as well as how highlights from the sun tend to fall on a vehicle.
Best of luck!
Here you can see that the drawing is very nearly complete. The details in the headlamps and wheels as well as the grille has been picked out and emphasised using the gouache. When applying the highlights to the door shuts notice that this does not continue fully to the bottom of the door. This is because as you move down the surface edge of the door it will reflect less of the light source back to your view point.
It is at this stage that the drawing begins to come alive in front of your eyes. By using a fine paintbrush and a little gouache (which you may need to thin a little with water) you can begin to pick out highlights and surface folds and body shut lines. As with the marker stage care should be taken here to produce crisp line work, although small errors can be corrected by using a scalpel to carefully scrape off the gouache.
Once you have completed the marker stage you can begin to add gradients of colour to the image. There are two common ways to do this when producing a drawing by hand. With pastels or by airbrush. The advantage of using airbrush is that you can achieve much smoother colour gradients, however, unlike pastel work, this cannot be erased so care has to be taken. When applying the gradients you must think about which areas of the vehicle shall be most reflective. This is where you must apply the least amount of colour. In this example you can see for instance that the far side of the bonnet where our angle of view is extremely acute there is very little colour applied. This transitions to almost near black on the near side of the bonnet. Similarly on the body side, very little colour has been applied just above the horizon line., transitioning to almost completely black as we travel up the surface to the windows.
Once you have completed the colour reflections you can begin to block in the actual colour of the car, in this case black. You can apply this colour anywhere on the vehicle that is not receiving a lot of light and reflections from the sky or the ground (it is often forgotten that the ground can actually light your vehicle from beneath due to reflected sunlight). Since at this stage you will be picking out key design elements and lines (and in this case using an unforgiving black marker pen) you should take care at this stage to produce crisp line work. Also remember to test your marker on a separate sheet of your marker paper first in order to test how much the ink is going to bleed.
After completing the line work it is time to start adding some colour with marker pens. Start by adding some very light blue to any upward facing surface. This helps give the feeling that these surfaces are reflecting the sky. You can also add a light brown colour to any surface which is angled downwards beneath the horizon line and shade these with a light brown. This helps give the impression of these surfaces reflecting the ground, and gives a classic chrome ball look. You can still be reasonably fast and loose at this stage since in the later stages you will be able to tighten up the rendering. You may also notice that the interior has only been shaded when looking through the front window. When glass is viewed from a very acute angle it tends to reflect much more than when viewed at 90%. Because of this the side windows have been left light to give the impression they are reflecting the sky in the distance behind the car.
The first stage in the process (shown above) is to work out your design in a loose and fast sketch, where you can concentrate on the design rather than careful line work. From there you can use this sketch as an underlay for your final line work. This has been drawn onto Letraset marker paper using a normal black biro. This drawing will form the base of your rendering so should be produced with care for the line quality. You should still aim however to retain some sketch like feeling to the line work to avoid the rendering looking too rigid. It may also be an idea to use ellipse guides on for the wheels.
The first stage in the process is to work out your design in a loose and fast sketch, where you can concentrate on the design rather than careful line work. This is done using a normal  Biro pen.

In this tutorial Leonardo Castilho will guide you through the technique he uses to produce quick air brush renderings. Leonardo has been producing this kind of artwork for two years after being inspired by the work of Chip Foose. To see other examples of Leonardo's please visit Car Design News where he has an online folio. For this tutorial Leonardo has used materials Letraset marker paper, a ball point pen, Art markers, an airbrush and gouache.
page last updated; 2014-06-15
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